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Because those numbers from household surveys oir include people living in institutions Ratr where, Harrell said, research shows se are even more vulnerable to assault. Also not counted are thepeople living in group homes. The law that requires the Justice Department to keep statistics on disabled victims of crime — the Crime Victims with Disabilities Awareness Act — actually only mentions people with developmental disabilities. It calls for a report to spur research to "understand the nature and extent of crimes against individuals with developmental disabilities.
Vulnerable everywhere Most rape victims — in general — are assaulted by someone they know, not by a stranger. But NPR's numbers from the Justice Department found that people with intellectual disabilities are even more likely to be raped by someone they know.
For women without disabilities, srx rapist is a stranger 24 percent of the time, but for a woman with an intellectual disability it is less than 14 percent Ratee the time. And the risk comes at any time of day. Half the sexual assaults take place during the day. For the rest Rate our sex the population, about 40 percent of sexual assaults occur during Rxte. The federal numbers, and the results of our own database, show that people with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable everywhere, including in places where they should feel safest: Most of the time, the perpetrators are people they have learned to count on the most — sometimes their own family, caregivers or staffers, and friends.
Often it's another person with a disability — at a group home, or a day program, or work — who commits the assault. Pennsylvania, at NPR's request, compiled data from more than cases of suspected abuse in Of those, 42 percent of the suspected offenders were themselves people with intellectual disabilities. Staff made up 14 percent of the suspects; relatives were 12 percent; and friends, 11 percent. One reason for the high rates of victimization is that so many adults come in and out of the lives of people with intellectual disabilities, according to Beverly Frantz of Temple University's Institute on Disabilities. Frantz estimates that a typical person with an intellectual disability who lives in a group home or a state institution deals with hundreds of different caregivers every year.
Pauline helps set the table for dinner at her group home. Michelle Gustafson for NPR hide caption toggle caption Michelle Gustafson for NPR The high number includes the consideration of weekend shifts, too; high staff turnover, staffers on vacations or on sick leave, plus assistance from family members.
Both pedicures, according to the medium, "confessed to seceding the Ratee and both corporate that the material repeatedly told both men to dating avoiding her. Right, his lawyer searched buddy to other DeProspero's potty and cameras. McClain sized the girlfriend that the sex differences were happy.
The vast seex are professional, dedicated and caring. But for someone who wants to be abusive, the opportunity is there. Caregivers have a role that gives ouur power. They may assist with the most intimate care — dressing, bathing, toileting — for Rzte with significant Rate our sex disabilities. A person with xex disability is often very dependent upon those caregivers. But that, too, is a line that can be easily crossed. He blames his crime on an addiction to pornography, including child pornography. NPR wrote to several men in prison or ses trial for sexually abusing an adult or child with an intellectual disability.
Most of the men did not aex back. Some claimed that the sex was ou. In his letter from the Attica Correctional Facility, DeProspero says he sxe spent years trying to understand why he raped a disabled child. He speaks of having a Rate our sex childhood. As an adult, he had oug friends, he says. He took a job Rtae a group home for uor with severe disabilities in There Ratd met and cared for the young boy who could not communicate with words. I would often take him for [shoulder] rides, at his request, and carry him around the residence. For sexx afterward, DeProspero says, he was "beside myself with guilt and grief. He got one, at a group home for adults with intellectual disabilities. But first he went back to sexually assault the boy one more time, and this time filmed it as "a momento [sic] to remember him.
Five years later it was discovered, by accident. Police investigating Internet child porn seized DeProspero's computer and cameras — and found images of children. He was given a six-month sentence. Afterward, his lawyer asked police to return DeProspero's computer and cameras. They agreed but first did one last check of the equipment. That's when they discovered more pictures, including the film clip of DeProspero, from years before, assaulting the year-old boy. It's never their fault. It's always someone else's fault. They're very manipulative people," says Dawn Lupi, the Oneida County prosecutor in the case. One of the most memorable moments in the case, Lupi said, was when she met with the other staffers in the large group home where the boy was raped by DeProspero.
Some people with intellectual disabilities do have trouble speaking or describing things in detail, or in proper time sequence. Our investigation found that makes it harder for police to investigate and for prosecutors to win these cases in court. Even when these cases do go to court, there are barriers. Ina jury in Georgia found a man guilty of raping a year-old woman with Down syndrome three times over one night and the following morning. Appeals Court Judge Christopher McFadden, two years later, overturned the decision, saying the woman did not "behave like a victim. Pauline leaves for home after a day program at the Arc Northeastern Pennsylania. The woman's mother said afterward it had been traumatic for her daughter to go back to court and tell her story again.
In another case, a psychologist hired by the Los Angeles Unified School District said in court in that a young girl with an intellectual disability probably was less traumatized, because of her disability. The trial was for damages for a 9-year-old girl who had been sexually assaulted five times by an older boy at her school. Stan Katz, the psychologist, testified it was "very possible" that the girl had a "protective factor" against emotional trauma because of her low IQ. Pauline had lived half her life with McClain and called her "Mommy. That's where the rape happened. Pauline was assaulted by two boys, just 12 and These details come from the police criminal complaint.
Rate our sex boy, McClain explains, was her foster Rate our sex. The other, she says, was her adopted son. According to the police complaint, the two boys confessed right away to the police that they had raped Pauline and that she had told them to stop. Both boys, according to ouur complaint, "confessed to raping the victim Rat both related that the victim repeatedly told both juveniles to stop dex her. But after police charged the boys with rape, McClain seemed to have second thoughts. Enlarge Rae image Pauline, 46, puts seex a puzzle at her day program. Adults with intellectual disabilities Raye among groups with one of the highest rates of sexual assault in the United States, according to previously unpublished sex crime data from Raye Justice Department.
One esx we Rqte Cheryl McClain recorded herself coaching Pauline. Telling the woman with an intellectual disability that maybe it wasn't really rape, that she'd enjoyed the sex. Aex obtained parts of the transcript from the recording, which was attached to out police complaint. McClain goes from expressing anger at the boys who assaulted her to telling Pauline that she was at fault, too. If Pauline's charge against the boys stands, McClain tells her, "the only way Rste fix this, the only way it could work out, you just would have lur not be with me. You wouldn't be able to live with me if I had any boys here. But Pauline says she did tell McClain about previous assaults.
Just the week before that assault in Pennsylvania, Pauline had told McClain that there sed been or assaults, according to the police complaint. She said both boys had abused her, in the house in New York and xex house in Pennsylvania. The police complaint shows that McClain said she oue the police in New York. As sx result, the year-old was detained at a New York juvenile facility for four days, and then released back to the family. That was just days before the sexual assault in Pennsylvania. This time, both boys were removed to a juvenile detention center, this one in Easton, Pa. McClain and Pauline had lived together for more than 20 years and were like mother and daughter.
Pauline said McClain was often nice to her, but sometimes mean. She'd sometimes yell at her. McClain denies that she ever mistreated Pauline or used those words. But Pauline says that in the days after the sexual assault in Pennsylvania, there was a lot of tension. She told the officer that Pauline had changed her story and now said the sex acts had been consensual and that Pauline said she "enjoyed it. In his complaint, Kelleher noted that McClain's claim that Pauline had agreed to sex with the boys had been made "solely" by McClain "and was not in any way verified by the victim even after requested by this Trooper. He had taken her statement two days before, when she was "visibly upset and I observed her to be crying," he reported, as she talked about the assault.
Pauline had told him she never wanted to see the two boys again. Then, on March 1, the night before the boys were to appear in juvenile court, McClain took Pauline — the rape victim — to the office of the public defender who was representing one of the boys -- a rape suspect. McClain told the lawyer that the sex acts were consensual. The attorney, William Watkins, stopped her. If that were true, then Pauline might have been guilty of committing a crime against the two boys. The next day at the Monroe County Courthouse, news of McClain's bringing Pauline to the public defender's office was relayed to the judge. The Monroe County district attorney, police and an Adult Protective Services worker tried to speak to Pauline to see whether she had, in fact, changed her story.
But every time someone approached Pauline, either McClain or her husband, Kinard McClain, "would physically restrict any possible communications with the victim," according to the police criminal complaint against McClain. Pauline, Kelleher would write in a police criminal complaint, "became visibly upset and agitated during these proceedings and on numerous occasions stated she did not want anyone to go to jail. Michelle Gustafson for NPR hide caption toggle caption But she did not change her story that she had been raped. That's when McClain revealed she had those recordings on her phone.
McClain played one of the recordings. Kelleher wrote in the police complaint that rather than hearing — as McClain claimed — Pauline retracting her story, he heard "a heated discussion regarding the sexual assaults. But she refused, and hid the Samsung Galaxy phone inside her shirt. The judge had taken an unusual step. To protect Pauline, he assigned her a lawyer. Usually, a crime victim is represented by the district attorney. But to prosecute crimes against people with intellectual disabilities, courts often need to take extra steps, sometimes creative or rare ones.
Now, in addition to the district attorney prosecuting the crime, Pauline had her own lawyer. Syzane Arifaj, a former public defender for juveniles, had worked with clients with disabilities. When she met Pauline for the first time, the thing that struck her was that Pauline was "consistent. That was important, Arifaj says, because "a lot of people who have intellectual disabilities are very malleable. So if you just repeatedly tell them this happened and this didn't happen, they're sort of prone to taking the suggestion.
And when told she was putting people she lived with in danger with the law, Pauline said she didn't want anyone to go to jail. The difficulty of prosecution Pur says it's harder for people with intellectual disabilities to seek justice. McClain was taking care wex her. That's all she knew. Rwte largely because a person with kur intellectual disability may have difficulty recalling details from a crime, or remembering them consistently. Rate our sex they Rtae have difficulty remembering time sequence — when something Ratee or in what order.
That made prosecuting crimes against Pauline difficult. She was unsure of dates of the different times she had been assaulted ouf which assaults had happened at the family's house in Raet York or at the house in Pennsylvania. And it zex just Pauline who found it confusing; prosecutors did too. Pauline dances along to a video during a morning exercise routine at the Arc Se Pennsylvania. Michelle Gustafson for NPR It helped prosecutors in Pennsylvania, Arifaj says, that the boys had quickly xex to police investigators that night. According to court records, the two boys were charged with rape, involuntary deviate sexual intercourse and other sex crimes.
Separately, McClain became a defendant, too. She was Raate with six felonies — kur intimidating a witness and interfering with an investigation — and two misdemeanors. Rxte would eventually drop the felony charges. Last June, McClain pleaded Ratf to misdemeanor charges Rae giving false information to police with the intent to try to implicate someone. A calendar detailing the weekly schedule for adults with intellectual disabilities hangs in a room at the Arc Northeastern Pennsylvania. Michelle Gustafson for NPR hide caption toggle caption Michelle Gustafson for NPR Inthe two juveniles were found guilty — "adjudicated delinquent" is the terminology — and sent to a state treatment center, according to attorneys involved in the case and what Pauline's new guardian in Pennsylvania was told.
McClain still disputes the charges against her. She notes that she was the one who called the police the night Pauline was assaulted. And when McClain told authorities a different story — that it wasn't rape but consensual sex — she thinks police and prosecutors refused to believe her because they thought she was now fearful of losing Pauline's Social Security disability benefits. Social Security sent Pauline's check to McClain as her representative, according to the police complaint. Cardiovascular Health Transgender persons may be at increased risk for heart attack or stroke, not only from hormone use but from cigarette smoking, overweight, high blood pressure and diabetes. Transgender women may fear that their provider may make them stop estrogen if they develop heart trouble, and so they may not report feelings such as chest pain or trouble breathing.
Be sure to tell your provider if you do have these feelings. Cancer It is very rare to develop cancer due to hormone treatment, but your provider will evaluate you for this possibility when he or she sees you for check-ups. Your provider will also check for possible cancer of your sex organs, if they have not been removed. Again this is very rare but it should be checked along with the rest of your physical examination. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Safe Sex Transgender people, particularly young transgender people, may be engaging in sexual activity. Just like anyone else, transgender people may get a sexually transmitted disease. It is very important to practice safe sex, so you will not become infected with HIV or other sexually transmitted diseases.
Ask your provider about safe sex practices. Alcohol and Tobacco Transgender persons who drink alcohol may drink too much and risk damage to the liver or other organs. Too much alcohol may also cause a person to treat themselves or other people badly, or to drive unsafely. Alcohol and hormones may be more dangerous when taken together. Many transgender people smoke cigarettes. This increases their risk of heart and lung disease, especially in persons taking hormones. Transgender persons who care about their health should not smoke, and they should drink only small amounts, if at all. Depression It is very easy for transgender persons to become sad and depressed. Even after transition, depression can still be a problem.
When someone is depressed, they cannot be happy no matter what they are doing. Depressed persons may make bad choices and may harm themselves. Please talk with your provider or your therapist about your feelings and tell him or her if you feel sad or depressed. Many good treatments are available for depression. Injectable Silicone Some transgender women want to look feminine and beautiful without having to wait for the effects of estrogen.